Role of Graphene in Advanced Materials

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They have high specific surface area and also electronic engineering and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They exhibit a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. Many two-dimensional materials are synthesized by selective extraction process which is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form Nano structures. These have a thickness of a few nanometres or less. Electrons are free to move in the two-dimensional plane, but their restricted motion in the third direction is governed by quantum mechanics. Magnetic topological insulator comprised of two-dimensional (2-D) materials has a potential of providing many interests  and applications by manipulating the surfaces states like yielding quantum anomalous Hall effect giving rise to dissipation-less chiral edge current, giving axion electromagnetism and others. The chemistry of electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties varies in a peculiar style and these materials are applied widely in case of ambipolar electronics, transistors and so on.