Nanotechnology is the handling of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers. Materials scientists and engineers work to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at the nanoscale level. The field of materials science covers the discovery, characterization, properties, and use of nanoscale materials. Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, influencing advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Materials with structure at the nanoscale level o have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties. Although much of nanotechnology's potential still remains un-utilized, investment in the field is booming. The U.S. government distributed more than a billion dollars to nanotechnology research in 2005 to find new developments in nanotechnology. China, Japan and the European Union have spent similar amounts. The hopes are the same on all fronts: to push oneself off a surface on a growing global market that the National Science Foundation estimates will be worth a trillion dollars. The global market for activated carbon totaled $1.9 billion, in 2013, driven primarily by Asia-Pacific and North American region for applications in water treatment and air purification.