Ceramics, Polymers and Composite Materials

Important utilities of Materials Science and Engineering include the structures of ceramics and glass generally related to the foremost brittle materials. Bonding in ceramics and glasses utilizes ionic-covalent and valency variations with SiO2 (silica or sand) as an elementary building block. Ceramics are as soft as clay or as onerous as stone and concrete. Ceramics presently are an important aspect of domestic, industrial and building products, also as a broad ingredient of ceramic art. In the 20th century, novel ceramic materials were developed that are presently being used in innovative ceramic engineering namely in semiconductor manufacturing.